Beyond Perspective Drawing - Part Two
3-D Graphics Tutorials
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Perspective Tutorials
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How Perspective
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Perspective and Drawing and Painting
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Perspective Drawing

Apparent Form and Perspective

Back to Part One...

We start by placing a circle or sphere around our viewpoint. (below left) Notice that the angle of light projecting through this measuring sphere is the same angle that is projecting onto the retina (the light-sensitive layer within the eye). (below right)

Measuring Light

This amount of direction projecting onto the retina determines how large or small a form will appear to us.

With size, a small form has a small angle of light compared to a big form. (below)

Measuring Size

Next, the more distant of these two forms has a smaller angle of light, even though these forms are exactly the same size. (below)

Measuring Distance

The more perpendicular in direction a form is to us, the larger it appears. (below)

Measuring Direction

It can be seen here that the angle of the form itself will affect its angle of light.

Perspective Drawing in Art

The Form Formula and Perspective

A formula is simply a list of ingredients for making something.

Size, distance and direction make up what I call the form formula.

None of these three can exist without the other two. First, without distance, we could not have a size for something. Second, no distance could exist without an amount for it. And finally, the existence of two- or three-dimensional form could only come from having two or three basic directions to work with.Foreshortening in perspective

Also, affecting one, affects the other two in some way. Changing a form's direction to us also changes its distance to us (one end is now closer and the other farther), alongThe Form Formula in Perspective with its apparent size. (right)

And note that the part of a form which is perpendicular to us in direction is also the closest in distance and will appear largest in size. (left)

Because these ingredients are connected in a specific relationship within a form, should we draw something with one of these three incorrectly applied, we would disrupt its particular balance and distort its final appearance, making it "out of proportion." For example, too much distance can make a person's head look too wide. The wrong direction can make their nose stick out too much.

The correction of such errors means figuring out which parts of the form formula are upset in your subject and fixing that, restoring it proper proportions.

This could involve the size, distance and direction:

  1. within an individual form

  2. between different forms

  3. of any forms in relation to us

This tutorial digs deeper than what is taught in other perspective drawing texts. It is astounding to discover how much about perspective drawing has been misunderstood or missing.

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Drawing and Perspective

A New Perspective: A New Understanding of Perspective for All Visual Art Forms Including: Drawing, Painting, Photography, Motion Picture and Video Game Design

This tutorial digs deeper than what is taught in other perspective drawing texts. It is astounding to discover how much about perspective drawing has been misunderstood or missing.
This tutorial digs deeper than what is taught in other perspective drawing texts. It is astounding to discover how much about perspective drawing has been misunderstood or missing.

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